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Rainbow Trout – Species Guide

Credit: Wikipedia

Market Name: Rainbow Trout
Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus mykiss
Common Names: Steelhead trout, Steelhead, Trout
French Name: Truite arc-en-ciel
German Name: Regenbogenforelle
Italian Name: Trota irdea
Japanese Name: Nijimasu
Spanish Name: Trucha arco iris
Sustainability Scores: Ocean Wise Seafood, Seafood Watch.

Overview

The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is a trout and species of salmonid native to cold-water tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America. The steelhead (sometimes called “steelhead trout”) is an anadromous (sea-run) form of the coastal rainbow trout (O. m. irideus) or Columbia River redband trout (O. m. gairdneri) that usually returns to fresh water to spawn after living two to three years in the ocean. Freshwater forms that have been introduced into the Great Lakes and migrate into tributaries to spawn are also called steelhead.

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Appearance

Resident freshwater rainbow trout adults average between 1 and 5 lb (0.5 and 2.3 kg) in riverine environments, while lake-dwelling and anadromous forms may reach 20 lb (9 kg). Coloration varies widely between regions and subspecies. Adult freshwater forms are generally blue-green or olive green with heavy black spotting over the length of the body. Adult fish have a broad reddish stripe along the lateral line, from gills to the tail, which is most pronounced in breeding males. The caudal fin is squarish and only mildly forked. Lake-dwelling and anadromous forms are usually more silvery in color with the reddish stripe almost completely gone. Juvenile rainbow trout display parr marks (dark vertical bars) typical of most salmonid juveniles. In some redband and golden trout forms parr marks are typically retained into adulthood. Some coastal rainbow trout (O. m. irideus) and Columbia River redband trout (O. m. gairdneri) populations and cutbow hybrids may also display reddish or pink throat markings similar to cutthroat trout. In many regions, hatchery-bred trout can be distinguished from native trout via fin clips. Fin clipping the adipose fin is a management tool used to identify hatchery-reared fish.

Where They Live

The native range of Oncorhynchus mykiss is in the coastal waters and tributary streams of the Pacific basin, from the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia, east along the Aleutian Islands, throughout southwest Alaska, the Pacific coast of British Columbia and southeast Alaska, and south along the west coast of the U.S. to northern Mexico. It is claimed that the Mexican forms of Oncorhynchus mykiss represent the southernmost native range of any trout or salmon (Salmonidae), though the Formosan landlocked salmon (O. masou formosanus) in Asia inhabits a similar latitude. The range of coastal rainbow trout (O. m. irideus) extends north from the Pacific basin into tributaries of the Bering Sea in northwest Alaska, while forms of the Columbia River redband trout (O. m. gairdneri) extend east into the upper Mackenzie River and Peace River watersheds in British Columbia and Alberta, Canada, which eventually drain into the Beaufort Sea, part of the Arctic Ocean. Since 1875, the rainbow trout has been widely introduced into suitable lacustrine and riverine environments throughout the United States and around the world. Many of these introductions have established wild, self-sustaining populations.

Fishery Management

One distinct population segment is listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act, and 10 DPS and 1 experimental non-essential population are listed as threatened.

NOAA Fisheries is committed to conserving and protecting steelhead trout. Our scientists and partners use a variety of innovative techniques to study, learn more about, and protect this species.

Harvest

Trout represents the oldest aquaculture industry in North America, dating back to the first trout hatchery in the 1880s. Today, Idaho accounts for 70 percent of the rainbow trout raised in the United States. All rainbow trout sold domestically are farmed, either in concrete raceways or earthen ponds. Farm-raised rainbows reach market size of 8 to 10 ounces in eight to 12 months.

Worldwide, in 2007, 604,695 tonnes (595,145 long tons; 666,562 short tons) of farmed rainbow trout were harvested with a value of about US$2.6 billion. The largest producer is Chile. In Chile and Norway, sea cage production of steelhead has expanded to supply export markets. Inland production of rainbow trout to supply domestic markets has increased in countries such as Italy, France, Germany, Denmark and Spain. Other significant trout-producing countries include the U.S., Iran, the United Kingdom, and Lesotho. While the U.S. rainbow trout industry as a whole is viewed as ecologically responsible, trout raised elsewhere are not necessarily farmed with the same methods.

Norway Lobster – Species Guide

Credit: Wikipedia

Market Name: Norway Lobster
Scientific Name: Nephrops norvegicus
Common Names: Deep Sea Lobster, Dublin Bay Prawn, Langoustine, Nephrops, Norwegian Lobster, Scampi.
French Name: Homard, Langouste
German Name: Hummer
Italian Name: Aragosta
Japanese Name: Ise ebi
Spanish Name: Cigala
Sustainability: Ocean Wise Seafood, Seafood Watch.

Overview

Nephrops norvegicus, known variously as the Norway lobster, Dublin Bay prawn, langoustine (compare langostino) or scampi, is a slim, orange-pink lobster which grows up to 25 cm (10 in) long, and is “the most important commercial crustacean in Europe”. It is now the only extant species in the genus Nephrops, after several other species were moved to the closely related genus Metanephrops. It lives in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean, and parts of the Mediterranean Sea, but is absent from the Baltic Sea and Black Sea. Adults emerge from their burrows at night to feed on worms and fish.

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Appearance

Nephrops norvegicus has the typical body shape of a lobster, albeit narrower than the large genus Homarus. It is pale orange in colour, and grows to a typical length of 18–20 centimetres (7–8 in), or exceptionally 25 cm (10 in) long, including the tail and claws. A carapace covers the animal’s cephalothorax, while the abdomen is long and segmented, ending in a broad tail fan. The first three pairs of legs bear claws, of which the first are greatly elongated and bear ridges of spines. Of the two pairs of antennae, the second is the longer and thinner. There is a long, spinous rostrum, and the compound eyes are kidney-shaped, providing the name of the genus, from the Greek roots νεφρός (nephros, “kidney”) and ops (“eye”).

Where They Live

Nephrops norvegicus is found in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean and North Sea as far north as Iceland and northern Norway, and south to Portugal. It is not common in the Mediterranean Sea except in the Adriatic Sea, notably the north Adriatic. It is absent from both the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea. Due to its ecological demands for particular sediments, N. norvegicus has a very patchy distribution, and is divided into over 30 populations. These populations are separated by inhospitable terrain, and adults rarely travel distances greater than a few hundred metres.

Fishery Management

The North East Atlantic individual biological stocks of Nephrops are identified as functional units. A number of functional units make up the sea areas over which a total allowable catch (TAC) is set annually by the EU Council of Ministers. For example, the TAC set for North Sea Nephrops is based on the aggregate total tonnage of removals recommended by science for nine separate functional unit areas. This method has attracted criticism because it can promote the overexploitation of a specific functional unit even though the overall TAC is under-fished. In 2016, the UK implemented a package of emergency technical measures with the cooperation of the fishing industry aimed at reducing fishing activity to induce recovery of the Nephrops stock in the Farn(e) Deeps off North East England which was close to collapse. A stock assessment completed in 2018 by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) shows that fishing pressure has been cut and this stock is now below FMSY and that stock size is above MSY Btrigger meaning that the Farne Deeps nephrops stock is being fished at a sustainable level. However, ICES also warn that any substantial transfer of the current surplus fishing opportunities from other functional units to the Farne Deeps would rapidly lead to overexploitation. This suggests that controls on fishing effort should continue at least until the biomass reaches a size that is sustainable when measured against the level of fishing activity by all fishermen wanting to target the stock.

Harvest

The muscular tail of Nephrops norvegicus is frequently eaten, and its meat is known as scampi. The N. norvegicus is eaten only on special occasions in Spain and Portugal, where it is less expensive than the common lobster, Homarus gammarus. N. norvegicus is an important species for fisheries, being caught mostly by trawling. Around 60,000 tonnes are caught annually, half of it in the United Kingdom’s waters.

Freshwater Shrimp – Species Guide

Credit: Wikipedia

Market Name: Freshwater Shrimp
Scientific Name: Macrobrachium rosenbergii
Common Names: Giant freshwater prawn, Malaysian prawn, Hawaiian blue prawn, giant river prawn, Ebi, Scampi.
French Name: Bouquet géant
German Name: Rosenberg-Garnele, Felsengarnele
Japanese Name: Onitenagaebi, Ebi.
Spanish Name: Camarón gigante
Sustainability: Ocean Wise Seafood

Overview

The freshwater shrimp most common to Western markets is the giant M. rosenbergii, also known as giant river prawn. It is found wild from Pakistan and northwest India to Malaysia, New Guinea, the Philippines and northern Australia and is farmed in freshwater areas throughout the world. In the United States, it is commercially farmed in Hawaii and experimentally in some southern states, notably Tennessee. This fast-growing shrimp can reach a weight of 4 to 6 ounces. In the wild, it can attain lengths of over 1 foot. In cultured ponds, it is generally harvested at 6 to 7 inches, or about six prawns per pound, head-on. There are limited markets for live or fresh giant prawns; most are sold as frozen tails.

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Appearance

M. rosenbergii can grow to a length over 30 cm (12 in). They are predominantly brownish in colour, but can vary. Smaller individuals may be greenish and display faint vertical stripes. The rostrum is very prominent and contains 11 to 14 dorsal teeth and 8 to 11 ventral teeth. The first pair of walking legs (pereiopods) is elongated and very thin, ending in delicate claws (chelipeds), which are used as feeding appendages. The second pair of walking legs are much larger and powerful, especially in males. The movable claws of the second pair of walking legs are distinctively covered in dense bristles (setae) that give them a velvety appearance. The color of the claws in males varies according to their social dominance.

Females can be distinguished from males by their wider abdomens and smaller second pereiopods. The genital openings are found on the body segments containing the fifth pereiopods and the third pereiopods in males and females, respectively.

Where They Live

Found wild from Pakistan and northwest India to Malaysia, New Guinea, the Philippines and northern Australia and is farmed in freshwater areas throughout the world.